Grade Two
 
Reading
1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

Decoding and Word Recognition
1.1 Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g. diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading.
1.2 Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., vowel-consonant-vowel [ = su/ per]; vowel-consonant/consonant-vowel [= sup/ per].
1.3 Decode two-syllable nonsense words and regular multisyllable words.
1.4 Recognize common abbreviations [e.g., Jan., Sun., Mr., St.].
1.5 Identify and correctly use regular plurals [e.g., -s, -es, -ies] and irregular plurals [e.g., fly/ flies, wife/ wives].
1.6 Read aloud fluently and accurately and with appropriate intonation and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.7 Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms.
1.8 Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning.
1.9 Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes [e.g., over-, un-, -ing, -ly].
1.10 Identify simple multiple-meaning words.

2.0 Reading Comprehension
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade two, students continue to make progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 State the purpose in reading (i. e., tell what information is sought).
2.3 Use knowledge of the author's purpose( s) to comprehend informational text.
2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition [e.g., why, what if, how].
2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.
2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.
2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.
2.8 Follow two-step written instructions.

3.0. Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.1 Compare and contrast plots, settings, and characters presented by different authors.
3.2 Generate alternative endings to plots and identify the reason or reasons for, and the impact of, the alternatives.
3.3 Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different cultures.
3.4 Identify the use of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.


Writing
1.0 Writing Strategies
Students write clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions).

Organization and Focus
1.1 Group related ideas and maintain a consistent focus.

Penmanship
1.2 Create readable documents with legible handwriting.

Research
1.3 Understand the purposes of various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, atlas).
Evaluation and Revision
1.4 Revise original drafts to improve sequence and provide more descriptive detail.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
Using the writing strategies of grade two outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
2.1 Write brief narratives based on their experiences:
a. Move through a logical sequence of events.
b. Describe the setting, characters, objects, and events in detail.
2.2 Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature.


Written and Oral English Language Conventions
The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.
1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions
Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.

Sentence Structure
1.1 Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences.
1.2 Recognize and use the correct word order in written sentences.

Grammar

1.3 Identify and correctly use various parts of speech, including nouns and verbs, in writing and speaking.

Punctuation
1.4 Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and items in a series.
1.5 Use quotation marks correctly.

Capitalization
1.6 Capitalize all proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences and greetings, months and days of the week, and titles and initials of people.

Spelling
1.7 Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g., was, were, says, said, who, what, why).
1.8 Spell basic short-vowel, long-vowel, r- controlled, and consonant-blend patterns correctly.


Listening and Speaking
1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies
Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.

Comprehension
1.1 Determine the purpose or purposes of listening (e.g., to obtain information, to solve problems, for enjoyment).
1.2 Ask for clarification and explanation of stories and ideas.
1.3 Paraphrase information that has been shared orally by others.
1.4 Give and follow three-and four-step oral directions.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
1.5 Organize presentations to maintain a clear focus.
1.6 Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace for the type of communication (e.g., informal discussion, report to class).
1.7 Recount experiences in a logical sequence.
1.8 Retell stories, including characters, setting, and plot.
1.9 Report on a topic with supportive facts and details.

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
Using the speaking strategies of grade two outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:
2.1 Recount experiences or present stories:
a. Move through a logical sequence of events.
b. Describe story elements (e.g., characters, plot, setting).
2.2 Report on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information.